SAIPAN

                                    SAIPAN

      OPERATIONS REPORT 295TH JOINT ASSAULT SIGNAL COMPANY - SAIPAN

            1. Attachment of the 295th Joint Assault Signal Company to the 27th Infantry Division on the 12th
of March 1944 was the first indication of an impending operation. The organization at the time of
attachment was assigned to the Signal Officer, Central Pacific Area.

            2. Prior Combat Experience - Some members of the organization had had prior combat
experience during the capture of the Marshall Islands. All Naval enlisted personnel had participated, all
Shore Fire Control enlisted personnel, four Army Field Artillery Officers (spotters), four complete Air
Ground Liaison parties, and three complete Shore Party communication Teams. Approximate total
participating was 11 officers and 215 enlisted men from an organizational strength of 43 officers and 460
enlisted men.

            3. During the period prior to the operation itself, general specialist instruction was conducted in all
sections in order to improve each individual in the performance of his assigned duties. 

            4. Joint Assault Signal Company Organization - Before continuing this report it is desirable for the
reader to understand the basic organization of the Joint Assault Signal Company. First, it is a unit designed
for attachment to an amphibious assault division. As a unit it has three missions: (1) Provision of a means
to each Battalion Landing Team for the control and direction of supporting naval gunfire; (2) Providing
parties to request air support and to advise infantry commanders on the use of aircraft in the support of
ground units; (3) To furnish teams for beach communications during initial phases of the amphibious
assault.

             The first mission is the duty of the Shore Fire Control Section having an authorized strength of 9
Field Artillery captains, 9 Naval lieutenants (senior grade), and 45 Army enlisted men. The section
consists of nine Shore Fire Control parties, one for attachment to each infantry battalion. Each has a Naval
Gunfire Spotter (Field Artillery Officer), a Battalion Naval Liaison Officer (Navy Officer), an enlisted Field
Artillery Scout, two radio operators, and two wiremen.

             The second mission is performed by the Air Ground Liaison Section with an authorized strength
of 13 captains (Avn) and 39 Air Force enlisted men. This section has 13 equal parties of an officer, two
radio operators, and a driver. One party is attached to the Division Headquarters and one to each
Regimental and Battalion Headquarters.

             The remaining mission is carried out by the Shore Party Communication Section whose
authorized strength is 10 First Lieutenants, Signal Corps, 190 enlisted men (Army), and 108 enlisted men
(Navy). Ten teams, for attachment to Shore Party Engineer Companies, of an officer, 19 Army enlisted
men, and 10 or 11 Navy enlisted men form the section. 

            A Major as Company Commander, a Captain as Executive Officer, a Warrant Officer as Supply
Officer, 69 Army enlisted men (30 are basics), and 5 Navy enlisted men make up the Headquarters
Platoon of the organization.

             In the 295th Joint Assault Signal Company the senior officer in each section has been appointed
Section Commander and in-so-far as possible each section is treated as a company except that the
commander does not have command responsibilities nor can he act as the commander in such matters as
exercising the 104th Article of War, etc. Due to the size of the organization it was found necessary to
appoint officers to act as S-3 and Personnel Officer in addition to their other duties. This is not completely
satisfactory as the officers concerned are unable to be with their teams or parties during a large percentage
of training time, and during combat they cannot operate in staff positions.

             Chart number one shows the administrative organization of the 295th Joint Assault Signal
Company, and chart number two shows tactical attachments to elements of an infantry division.[ Charts
are not reproduced.] 

            5. Detachment of Navy enlisted men - The Naval enlisted personnel in the Shore Party
Communication Teams had the duty of working with the Navy Beach-Master and furnishing for him
communication from the beach to the ships and laterally to adjacent beach-masters. As these personnel
were unable to train with the beach-masters with whom they would work in combat, and due to the
administrative difficulties of Naval enlisted personnel within an Army unit, all Naval enlisted men were
returned to the Navy on order of the Commanding General, USAFICP, on the 21st of April 1944. The
mission of these men was also assumed by the Navy. This change meant that the Navy enlisted men were
to be no longer considered for use during the operation that was to come, and also that there was no
Army controlled radio channel linking the beach and the combat loaded transports. It was of course
possible for the Navy Beach-Master to handle Army traffic over his circuit, but he would naturally give his
own messages priority and also there would be delay of the message passing through the shipís
communication office before delivery to the proper Army personnel.

            6. Additional Personnel for Air Ground Liaison and Shore Fire Control Parties Another problem
had been encountered in the fact that the Table of Organization strength for the Shore Fire Control and Air
Ground Liaison Parties was not sufficient for performance of their mission. This fact was agreed to by
Army and Navy Headquarters in the Central Pacific Area, but authorization had not been obtained for the
assignment of additional personnel, During the Marshall Islands Operation, Parties with the 7th Infantry
Division had strength as follows: Air Ground Liaison Parties - 6 enlisted men; Shore Fire Control Parties -
13 enlisted men.

             Considerable study was given to the subject of additional personnel, and this organization finally
decided that the minimum number of men for a Shore Fire Control Party would be ten and for an Air
Ground Liaison Party - five. It was originally hoped that these additional specialist personnel would be
attached to the organization from units under Headquarters, USAFICPA, but the 27th Division was
directed to furnish the personnel from its own organic units. The matter was presented to the 27th Division
Chief of Staff and it was decided that personnel would be placed on temporary duty with the 295th Joint
Assault Signal Company for the Forager Operation. At the same time the Chief of Staff prepared and
forwarded a recommendation for a change in the Table of Organization to increase each Air Liaison Party
to five enlisted men and each Shore Fire Control Party to ten enlisted men.

             On the 24th of April 1944, 82 enlisted men were placed on temporary duty with this unit. Each
Infantry Regimental and Battalion Headquarters furnished two radio operators to work with its attached
Air Ground Liaison Party, and the Division Signal Company furnished the two radio operators to complete
the Division Air Ground Liaison Party. One radio operator and one wireman came from the Division
Artillery for each of the nine Shore Fire Control Parties, while each Infantry Battalion supplied a radio
operator, a wireman, and a driver-wireman to complete them. In addition, two regiments sent three radio
operators while the third regiment furnished three radio operators and two wiremen, to constitute the
Regimental Naval Liaison Officerís Party (the Regimental Navy Liaison Officer being attached to the
Division from Fifth Amphibious Corps but not bring his own communication personnel or equipment).

            7. Training of Shore Fire Control Parties - On the 24th of April the preoperational training of the
Shore Fire Control Section was turned over to the 27th Division Artillery. During the period 2nd May to
18th May all of the parties participated in communication exercises with Navy ships, in firing and spotting
of Field Artillery on the Schofield Range, Oahu, T. H., and the firing of destroyers and cruisers at
Kahoolawe, T.H.

            8. Training of Air Ground Liaison Parties - Prior to the operation, the various parties of the Air
Ground Liaison Section continued communication drills and participated in direct air support problems
with squadrons of planes based on Oahu, T. H. One party was able to go to Maui, T. H., another to
Kauai, T. H. to engage in amphibious Air Ground Liaison training with the 33rd Infantry Division.
Remaining parties had problems with various battalions of the 38th Infantry Division in their training on
Oahu. An SCR 284 radio had been obtained for each Air Ground Liaison Party in order that each party
would have a portable as well as a mobile radio set. Both sets were used during the training period.

            9. Shore Party Communication Section Training and Establishment of Ship-Shore-Lateral Net -
The Shore Party Communication Teams were engaged during this period in unit and specialist training.
Near the end of April it was decided that our organization would place a radio team on each of the fifteen
ships that were to transport the Division. The purpose of these teams was to establish an Army controlled
ship-to-shore radio net. The net was designated as the ship-shore-lateral and is pictured in chart number
three. As battalion landing teams were loaded on nine of the transports, each Shore Party Communication
Team with each of these ships was designated to establish a radio team operating an SCR 284 aboard.
Each team would use its other SCR 284 on the beach as the land terminus of the net. This left six ships for
which teams were to be furnished, and the tenth or extra communication team was used for this purpose.
Its members were all given special voice radio training with the SCR 284 and teams of either three or four
enlisted men each were created. Six extra SCR 284's were obtained for the use of these personnel.
During this same period it was determined to use the SCR 300 for the inland net to the battalions, with the
beach station as a part of the battalion SCR 300 command net. Nine SCR 300's were drawn for the
organization, and radio and message center personnel of the Shore Party Communication Section were
trained in their operation.

            10. Administrative Planning-Personnel and Equipment - Early in May, in conference with the
Division Signal Officer and a representative of the Division G-4, it was decided which elements of the Joint
Assault Signal company would accompany the Assault Echelon. On the basis that all tactical personnel
would be attached to different units, all supply, motor, mess, and administrative personnel of our
organization were to remain in the Rear Echelon. As space on the ships was already at a premium and as
previous operations had not indicated its need, transportation was not to be carried on the operation for
the Shore Fire Control Parties or the Shore Party Communication Teams. The only transportation to be
taken on the operation was; a half-track personnel carrier mounting the SCR 499; a one ton trailer with
power unit for the SCR 499; 13 - 1/4 ton trucks (radio equipped for the Air Ground Liaison Section); and
a 1/4 ton truck for the Company Commander.

            11. Additional Frequencies for SCR 536 Radios - SCR 536's were to be used for inter-team and
party communication. An additional two of these sets (making a total of four) had been obtained for each
Shore Fire Control Party. This added to a total of eighty nine SCR 536's to be used on the operation (27
in 9 Shore Party Communication Teams; 26 in the Air Ground Liaison Section; 36 in the Shore Fire
Control Section). The remaining problem was to obtain frequencies that were reasonably clear for these
radios. The original twelve ground force frequencies of course were already in use by the regiments, so
finally it was possible to obtain seven additional frequencies. Crystals for these channels were ground by
personnel of the Signal Officer, USAFICPA, and sets were alined as follows:

                 a. 26 for Air Ground Liaison Section on Frequency A.

                 b. 9 for all 1st Battalion Shore Party Communication Teams on Frequency B.

                 c. 9 for all 2nd Battalion Shore Party Communication Teams on Frequency C.

            d. 9 for all 3rd Battalion Shore Party Communication Teams on Frequency D.

            e. 12 for all 1st Battalion Shore Fire Control Parties on Frequency E.

            f. 12 for all 2nd Battalion Shore Fire Control Parties on Frequency F.

            g. 12 for all 3rd Battalion Shore Fire Control Parties on Frequency G.

                 This arrangement was completed just in time to deliver the CSR 536's to the various teams and
parties prior to final sailing.

            12. Additional Equipment - Other non-Table of Equipment items procured for use on the
operation were:

             a. 2 ED telephones for each Shore Fire Control Party to be used with CSR 284 remote
     control units.

                  b. Quartermaster pack-boards on which to lash CSR 284's.

             c. 9 small, lightweight, 10 drop switchboards especially constructed by personnel of the
     Signal Officer, 
                 USAFICPA, for use by the Shore Party Communication Teams.

                  d. 5 miles of W-130 wire for each Shore Party Communication Team.

            13. Authorized Equipment Not Taken - Items of authorized equipment that were either turned in
or not taken on the   operation were as follows:

                 a. 11 Charging sets SCR 169.

                 b. 22 EE65A Test Sets. -

                 c. 220 Lance Poles.

                 d. 22 Converters M-209 originally authorized for Air Ground Liaison and Shore Fire Control
Parties.

            14. Amphibious Maneuvers - Between the 7th and 28th of April, elements of the organization
engaged in amphibious maneuvers with two regiments of the 27th Infantry Division. On May 18th the
tactical elements of the company accompanied the division on a final dress rehearsal returning to Oahu,
25th of May.

   15. Distribution of Personnel for Operation - On return to Oahu our tactical elements remained
attached to the various regiments and battalions. Final check indicated that our Rear Echelon to remain on
Oahu would be 2 officers, 1 warrant officer, and 43 enlisted men (including sick in hospital, mess, supply,
motor, and administrative personnel). The tactical echelon of the 295th Joint Assault Signal Company had
a strength of 42 officers and 385 enlisted men (including 82 men attached from 27th Division). A Field
Artillery officer from the 592nd Joint Assault Signal Company was also attached to the unit as an
observer.

             The Commanding Officer, 2 radio operators, 2 radio repairmen, (one attached to Division Air
Ground Liaison Section to care for SCR 499), one telephone repairman and a driver comprised the
Headquarters for the tactical echelon of the organization. Shore Party Communication Section strength,
including special radio teams for ship-shore-lateral net, was 10 officers and 212 enlisted men; that of the
Shore Fire Control Section was 18 officers and 102 enlisted men; and that of the Air Ground Liaison
Section was 13 officers and 65 enlisted men. For the operation attachment of various teams and parties
were according to Chart #1, except that Shore Fire Control Parties now had ten enlisted men and Air
Ground Liaison Parties had five.

 16. Embarkation and Sailing - Attachments of the 295th Joint Assault Signal Company with the
106th Infantry sailed from Pearl Harbor on the 28th of May. Remaining elements finished loading with the
Division by 31 May and sailed for the Marshalls on 1 June 1944. During the voyage, troops received
ship-board training and orientation while the staff engaged in Command Post exercises for the operation.
Our convoy reached Kwajalein Harbor 9 June 44.

 17. Planning Conference at Kwajalein - On the 10th of June a conference was held aboard the
USS Fremont to decide final details for the assault on the Marianas. On the subject of supporting naval
gunfire, one of the Regimental Commanders desired to have a radio net or some means of communication
established whereby any naval gunfire mission would be referred to him for approval prior to firing. The
Commanding Officer of the Joint Assault Signal Company opposed this suggestion as such a procedure
would further increase the time delay in obtaining naval gunfire support; it would involve the use of extra
radios, additional frequencies and operators which were not readily available; and necessary approval by
the Regimental Commander for each mission would leave little or no responsibility on the Spotter and
Battalion Naval Liaison Officer who would probably be looking at the terrain instead of a map. After
some discussion, the Regimental Commanderís request was denied.

  18. The Assault - Sailing from Kwajalein on 11 June we arrived in our assembly area to the
north-west of Saipan at 160550. By afternoon of the sixteenth of June it was evident that all or part of the
27th Infantry Division would be committed on Saipan. The 165th Infantry was to land in column of
battalions on the night of the 16th. Radio silence was lifted and by 2100, 16 June, all ship stations in
ship-shore-lateral net were in contact (except ships carrying 106th Infantry which had not as yet reached
Saipan). The 27th Infantry Division Staff and Headquarters of the 295th Joint Assault Signal Company
landed on the 17th of June. During the initial landing our organization suffered no casualties. However,
during the evening of the 17th of June, a Japanese plane strafed Blue Two Beach, Wounding two Shore
Party Communication Section enlisted men.

   19. Status of Signal Supplies - The possible threat of an attack by the Japanese Fleet had caused
the majority of our transports to stand out to sea. Not much signal equipment had been unloaded before
the ships departed and the Division Signal Officer asked our organization to: (1) Turn over to him as much
of our signal equipment as we could. (2) To establish dumps of signal equipment at our beach locations,
keeping lookouts on the beach for 27th Division Signal supplies and securing same in the dumps from
pilfering. In response to the first request, a total of 22 SCR 536ís, 9 SCR 300ís, and 3 SCR 284ís were
turned over to the Division Signal Officer. The dumps established by the Shore Party Communication
Section were operated until all Division Signal supplies were ashore.

20. Participation of Shore Party Communication Section - A Shore Party Communication Team
has the mission of establishing communications on an assault beach. A plan of the communications to be
established by three teams is shown in Chart #4. In the Saipan operation the 27th Division did not make
an assault landing but landed on a secured beachhead. On these beaches the Marines had their shore
parties including communication teams from their own Marine Joint Assault Signal Company. As both
Army and Marines still had to handle their own equipment across the same beach, all communication
teams operated with their respective shore party companies. Had there been assurance of landing across a
secured beach, nine communication teams would have been unnecessary as they were not all needed at
Saipan. Army communications were as shown in Chart #4 with the addition of wire trunks to the Marine
Joint Assault Signal installations. Actually had there been sufficient coordination, one communication team
with additional equipment would have been adequate for each numbered beach.

              When the infantry battalions had moved inland about 2 1/2 miles, contact through the SCR 300
radio net was lost. This situation, however, was normal as now the beaches were under Division G-4
control, and it was no longer necessary for the battalions to directly contact the beaches.  Supplies were
by that time following normal channels.

             The ship-shore-lateral radio net proved very satisfactory. The majority of messages handled by
the net were concerned with supplies and the unloading of ships.

             The Shore Party teams suffered due to the lack of transportation. During the operation, each of
the nine teams changed location at least once and several of them moved four or five times. It was
impossible for them to move all of their equipment without transportation. Transportation had to be
borrowed and always caused delay in the movement of the teams.

             As the beaches were consolidated and Shore Party Engineers were relieved for other duties, the
communication teams concerned accompanied the engineers and provided for them their internal
communications.

             On 29 June the Division Signal Officer asked that the communication teams of our organization
furnish 25 enlisted communication specialists to act as replacements to the Infantry Battalions and
Regiments. During the operation a total of 50 (18 high-speed radio operators SSN 766, 21 wiremen
including 2 wirechiefs, and 11 message center men including 1 message center chief) enlisted men from the
Shore Party Communication Teams of our company were used as replacements. This was agreeable to
the organization commander as it did not interfere with his mission and it would help the division.
However, in one instance, objection was made to the fact that three high-speed radio operators attached
to one battalion were placed in front line platoons or companies to operate either SCR 300's or SCR
536ís. This action was deemed as improper use of specialist personnel, and a message was sent
confirming the unit commanderís objection (see Journal 3 July 44). The three men concerned remained in
their original assignments until after Saipan was secured.

             On June 30th the Division Signal Officer directed that one communication team be attached to the
106 RCT and one to the 165 RCT for the purpose of signal salvage. The two teams were attached and on
the 2nd of July, another one was sent to the 105th RCT for the same purpose. All together 3 officers and
56 men were engaged in this work. 

              On the 2nd of July the Signal Officer directed the 295th Joint Assault Signal Company to take
over and operate all signal facilities at the Division Rear Echelon and also to furnish additional personnel to
assist in the operation of the Division Signal dump. One communication team was assigned to each task
effective 3rd or 4th of July (as soon as they could borrow transportation to move).

             Saipan was announced secured on the 9th of July, and plans were immediately started for the
Tinian assault. At this time everyone believed that the 27th Division, less the 105th Infantry, would actively
participate in the operation. Most of the Shore Party Engineers were detached from the Division, and on
the 18th of July it was announced that communication teams of the 295th Joint Assault Signal Company
would not participate in the capture of Tinian.

             The remaining difficulty was that the unattached teams now had no place to ration. The
organizational kitchens were left in the Rear Echelon, and finally three teams were attached to the Division
Quartermaster Company, one to an infantry battalion and one to the Division Ordnance Company for
rations.

             On the 6th of August enlisted men who had been on temporary duty with Infantry Battalions and
Regiments were returned to their own communication teams, thus ending the active participation of the
Shore Party Communication Section for the period of this report.


 21. Participation of the Shore Fire Control Section - The nine Shore Fire Control Parties of our
organization landed on Saipan with their individual battalion landing teams. Including the enlisted personnel
for the Regimental Naval Liaison Officerís Party, 9 Navy Officers, 9 Army Officers, and 102 enlisted men
comprised the Shore Fire Control Section for the operation. The 27th Division landed in reserve and at
first was not used as a complete unit. Consequently various battalions made many movements, and the
main difficulty encountered by Shore Fire Control Parties was the movement of their party and
communication equipment without vehicles. Definitely transportation is necessary and should be allowed
for these parties on any operation in which the land mass is comparable in area to Saipan.

             The Shore Fire Control Parties remained with their battalions throughout the Divisionís stay on
Saipan. Each party made a separate report on its operation through their own Battalion, and a separate
Naval Gunfire report was submitted through the Division by the Division Naval Gunfire Officer to cover
party activities. The most consistent use of the parties was for providing night illumination during the
operation. Several support naval gunfire problems were fired successfully.

             Some points concerning the employment of Naval Gunfire which are due consideration are:

        a. It is a supporting weapon used to greatest advantage prior to the establishment of shore
     based artillery. 

        b. It is often impossible to fire naval gunfire at a target when Field Artillery can be used--as
     the trajectory of 
            naval guns is quite flat and would unnecessarily endanger troops adjacent to the target
     sector.

             c. Due to the present system of obtaining naval gunfire, Shore Fire Control personnel are unable
to immediately state to                    the Infantry Commander whether or not supporting naval fire can be
obtained. In this sense the naval gunfire
                 procedure is inferior to that of the Field Artillery whose Liaison Officer can almost immediately
promise or deny fire                    in any particular area to the Infantry Battalion Commander. Possibly the
placing of more responsibility for the safety                    of naval gunfire on liaison personnel would
improve this situation.

        d. The value of naval gunfire to destroy the enemy's morale should not be under estimated.
     Most of the captured          prisoners on Saipan stated that naval gunfire was their number
     one fear.

        e. When supporting ships are not in position, it often takes some time to fire a mission even
     after approval.

        f. If proper arrangements are made naval ships can be used for counter-battery fire using
     air observation.

                Chart #5 sketches the intended communication system to be used by a Shore Fire Control
Party. The greatest difficulty encountered in this system was that most Spotters found it almost impossible
to carry their SCR 284 far enough forward to serve its intended purpose, even with the use of remote
control lines. Hardly would the radio be set up before it had to move, and also as time was too limited for
digging foxholes, all operation personnel would usually be exposed to enemy fire. Therefore almost every
party went through the operation without the use of an SCR 284 with the spotter at his forward
observation post. Direct communication from spotter to NLO was first tried using the SCR 536. This
attempt in most cases was unsuccessful due to the mountainous terrain and limited range of the SCR 536.
Some parties were able to borrow SCR 300ís from the Infantry Battalions and established a system as
depicted in Chart #6. Other parties depended upon already established infantry wire or radio to link
spotter and NLO (Naval Liaison Officer). All of these systems had the disadvantage of no direct contact
between the Spotter and the firing ship, and possible wide spread employment of the SCR 300 involves
the use of an infantry radio with a limited number of clear channels.

                In addition to the normal destroyers and cruisers used for supporting fire, some work was done
with LCI-G's. Saipan was officially secured on 9 July, however, commencing about 30 July the 27th
Division spent seven days in a final mop-up sweep covering all territory north of Mt. Tapotchau. Along the
coast were many cliffs honey-combed with caves. An LCI firing 40 mm shells into the caves was used on
each coast. Shore Fire Control personnel were on shore and on the ships, and control of fire was directed
at various targets from shore using either SCR 284 or SCR 300 radios.

                During the operation a Spotter and a Naval Liaison Officer were killed, a Spotter and a Naval
Liaison Officer seriously wounded and evacuated. Several enlisted men were also casualties. To prepare
for the possibility of active participation on Tinian, all Shore Fire Control parties of the 165th and 106th
Infantry were brought to full strength by use of party personnel who were originally attached to the 105th
Infantry. Also a Spotter and a Naval Liaison Officer were placed on temporary duty with Northern
Troops and Landing Force. The Navy Officer stood duty on the cruiser Louisville, the Spotter (Army
Field Artillery Officer) was attached to the 3rd Battalion 25th Marines. While the Spotter was on this
duty, he adjusted 16" gunfire from the battleships California and Tennessee, and on the day prior to
securing Tinian, he was wounded by a sniper and evacuated.

                Upon completion of the operation, many opinions were advanced by the various officers of the
Shore Fire Control Section. They are presented here for the purpose of information only.
Recommendations concerning the Shore Fire Control Section are in the section on Summary and
Recommendations.

           a. Four Army and four Navy Officers stated that the position of the Battalion Naval
     Liaison Officer was        unnecessary--various reasons: that NLO's radio relay work could
     be done by a communication sergeant; that NLO's work could also be done by the spotter;
     that an Army Officer could act in the position as well as or better than a Navy officer; and
     that continued use of Navy officers in such a position caused them to decrease in value to the
     Navy due to the lack of shipboard experience.

            b. Shore Fire Control parties might work better if placed in an organization with only
     one instead of three primary missions.

            c. A party of ten men is sufficient providing T/E transportation is taken on operations.

            d. The Naval Gunfire Spotter (Army Officer) at the forward observation post needs
     relief during a long operation.

                 e. The use of Regimental NLOís should be continued.

            f. If the use of Battalion NLO's is continued a more rapid system of replacement should
     be instituted, as a Naval Liaison Officer can be trained in a few weeks.

 

            g. If Battalion NLO's are used they should be attached to Army units only during an
     operation.

            h. When Shore Fire Control parties are not in use by a front line battalion, they should
     be sent to a Rear Area.

                 i. The SCR 284 is too heavy a radio for use in front lines by the spotter. A lighter radio with
same frequency band is             desirable. If possible it should be battery powered, as the use of the noisy
hand generator is quite dangerous in the front             lines.

            j. SCR 536ís, due to limited range in mountainous country, are unsatisfactory for spotter
     to NLO contact. SCR 3OOís were tried and found very satisfactory.

                k. Shore Fire Control party T/O should rate party chief as S/Sgt., (Basis: A S/Sgt. is in charge
of each Air Ground              Liaison Party) and men filling same positions in different parties should be
authorized the same grades. This is not now              the case.

                l. Obtaining additional personnel for parties other than by assignment would only be satisfactory
if men stayed with              parties continuously.

                m. Eliminate the Battalion NLO and replace him with a Field Artillery officer. Between the two
Field Artillerymen              one would always be at the Battalion CP, and they could rotate in the position
of Forward Observer.

           n. Form a regimental team of one officer and five enlisted men within the Joint Assault
     Signal Company.

                o. Quartermaster gas cooking stoves should be provided each party.

                p. SCR 284 should be replaced as soon as possible by SCR 694.

                q. SCR 300ís should be used to replace SCR 536's.

  22. Participation of the Air Ground Liaison Section - Thirteen Air Ground Liaison parties totaling
13 officers and 65 enlisted men participated in the Saipan operation. Parties were attached to Battalion,
Regimental, and Division Headquarters and remained attached until departure from the island. Twelve of
the parties were equipped with: 1/4 ton truck mounting SCR 193 and SCR 542; 2 SCR 536~B; panels;
sound power telephones and wire; and an SCR 284. The Division party had a half-track personnel carrier
mounting an SCR 499, SCR 542, and SCR 284; and a 1/4 ton truck mounting a BC 191 transmitter and
two BC 312 receivers.

                 The plan of assault was that an officer and three men with the portable radio would accompany
the Infantry Commander. The fourth radio operator and the driver would bring in the mobile radio as soon
as vehicles could be landed. During the operation a great number of these vehicles did not reach their
parties until five days after the original landing. The 1/4 ton truck with the Division Party was actually for
the use of the Support Aircraft Commander if he came ashore with the Division. This vehicle went ashore
with the Division Party on the 17th of June, and it was the 22nd of June before the half-track and SCR
499 were landed.

                 The planned communication system for the Air Ground Liaison Parties is depicted in Chart #7.
The system was actually used during the operation, and either the SCR 536 or sound power telephones
were used for communication to the radio station proper during those periods when the Air Liaison officer
was elsewhere. No communication problems were encountered during the operation. A minor difficulty
was that the power unit for the SCR 499 began to develop ignition noises in the receivers. The SCR 542,
an expensive VHF radio with which each party was equipped, was not used in the operation. Some higher
authority should determine whether or not liaison parties will in the future use the SCR 542 for direct
ground-air contact. If this radio is not to be used in the future, all of them should be turned in.

                 As stated before no communication difficulties were encountered, but as far as demonstrating
to the Ground Force Commanders the value of close air support, the operation was not too satisfactory.
Several reasons for this statement are advanced below:

                 a. In the initial phases the availability of aircraft was very limited due to engagement with the
Japanese Fleet.

                 b. The 27th Division as a reserve division had not received as much consideration in planning
for air support as had                        the assault divisions. For instance, the 27th Division had no
permanently assigned observation plane while the                        other divisions had at least one apiece, if
not more.

                 c. Availability and capability of Field Artillery were excellent.

            d. Terrain within the Division boundaries was very poor for air support missions.

            e. Front lines were so irregular that it was impossible in many cases to run close support
     air missions because              they would endanger adjacent units.

            f. Elapsed time between request and delivery of missions was too long to satisfy Infantry
     Commanders.             During air support missions it was necessary to cease Naval Gunfire
     and Field Artillery, thereby presenting             another problem in coordination -- particularly
     when expected time for arrival of aircraft was uncertain             when a mission was
     requested. The Regimental Air Liaison Officer with the 105 Infantry reported average
                 time lag for all missions which he requested as 61 minutes.

            g. Observation planes were seldom able to spot sources of artillery or mortar fire falling
     on our troops.

            h. Results from observation missions, when positive, were sometimes reported so late
     that their value was greatly decreased .


 

To quote from the Division Air Ground Liaison officer, "Air support rendered this division
was not dependable and left much to be desired both by the Air Ground Liaison parties and the Unit
Commanding Officer (Infantry Commanders). It is felt that this operation did more harm for air ground
support than it did good, since in many cases, it was the first time that Unit Commanders had a chance to
exercise the"air arm".

                    A listing of all mission requests by the Air Ground Liaison section reveals the following,
information: 

 

DATE-TIME                 UNIT           TYPE                  DISPOSITION
                                                   REMARKS

190751                  105 RCT         Obsn                     Disapproved                                               No
A/C available
191143                  105-1               Strafe                   Approved-canceled                                      No
longer desired
191309                  105 RCT         B&S                     Disapproved                                                No
A/C available
191335                  105-1               Divobomb             Disapproved                                                No
A/C available
191457                  105-1               Dive-bomb           Approved-cancelled                                    
Friendly tps advanced
                                                                                                                                                    in
meantime. 
191641                  165-2               Bomb                   Disapproved                                                 No
A/C available
191645                  105 RCT         B & S                  Approved                                        A/C available
mission longer desired

                                                                                                                                   Number of
missions requested-------7
                                                                                                                                                  
Approved-----------------3
                                                                                                                                                  
Disapproved--------------4

200638                   105-3              Bomb                  Disapproved                                                  Too
close friendly tps
200748                   105-3              Obsn                   Approved                                                      No
enemy activity obsvd
200820                   105-1              Divebomb           Disapproved                                                   No
A/C available
201020                   16-3                B & S                 Disapproved                                                   No
A/C available
201109                   105-3              Obsn                  Disapproved                                                   
Reason unknown
201230                   105-3              Divebomb          Disapproved                                                   
Friendly tps in area
201400                   165   RCT       Strafe                 Disapproved                                                    No
A/C available

                                                                                                                                    Number of
missions requested-------7
                                                                                                                                                   
Approved-----------------1
                                                                                                                                                   
Disapproved--------------6

210650                    105-3               Obsn                 Disapproved                                                  
Reason unknown
211103                    105-1               Bomb                Approved                                                      
Artillery prevented planes
                                                                                                                                                      from
approaching target
211131                    105-1               Bomb                Approved                                                     
Missed target 100 yds
211245                    105-3               Bomb                Disapproved                                                 
Artillery not secured
211450                    165 RCT        Obsn                   Approved                                                      No
enemy activity reported
211615                    105-2              Rockets              Disapproved                                                  Too
close to friendly tps
                                                                                                                                                    
Canceled by 165 ROT

                                                                                                                                     Number of
missions requested-------6
                                                                                                                                                     
Approved----------------3
                                                                                                                                                     
Disapproved-------------3

221504                    105-2                 Obsn                 Approved                                                      
Positive results
221515                    105-2                 Obsn                 Approved                                                      
Positive results
221620                    105 RCT           Bomb                  Approved                                                      
Good results, wrong target

                                                                                                                                       Number of
missions requested-----3
                                                                                                                                                       
Approved--------------3
                                                                                                                                                       
Disapproved------------0

231030                    105-2                  Obsn                Approved                                                     No
enemy activity observed
231145                    165-2                  Strafe               Disapproved                                                
No-A/C available
231401                    165-2                  Bomb               Approved                                                    
Missed target
231430                    165-2                  Strafe               Approved                                                     
Positive results
251440                    165 RCT            Bomb                 Disapproved                                                  No
A/C available

                                                                                                                                        Number of
missions requested-----5
                                                                                                                                                        
Approved--------------3
                                                                                                                                                        
Disapproved-----------2

- 

240654                    165-1                  Bomb               Disapproved                                                 No
A/C available
240707                    106-3                  Obsn                Approved                                                    
Successful
240742                    165-2                  Strafe               Disapproved                                                 No
A/C available
240747                    165 RCT            Obsn                  Approved                                                     No
enemy activity observed
240815                    165-2                  Obsn                Approved                                                     No
enemy activity observed
240842                    165 RCT            Obsn                  Approved                                                    
Affirmative results
240845                    105-2                  Obsn                Approved                                                     No
enemy activity observed
240858                    165-2                  Obsn                Approved                                                     No
enemy activity observed
241255                    106-3                  Obsn                Disapproved                                                 No
A/C available
241335                    165-1                  Bomb               Disapproved                                                 No
A/C available
241407                    106-2                  B & S               Approved                                                     
Effective results
241450                    165-1                  Obsn                Disapproved                                                 No
A/C available
241459                    106-2                  Obsn                Approved                                                    
Effective results

                                                                                                                                         Number of
missions requested---13
                                                                                                                                                         
Approved-------------8
                                                                                                                                                         
Disapproved----------5


250700                    105-2                   Bomb               Approved                                                         
Hit wrong area
250800                    105-2                   Bomb               Approved                                                         
Good results
250950                    Div-AGL              Obsn                Approved                                                         
Effective results
251134                    105-2                   B&Rocket        Disapproved                                                     
No A/C available
251445                    105-2                   B&Rocket        Approved                                                         
Very good
251446                    105-2                   B&Rocket        Disapproved                                                     
No A/C available
251542                    106-3                   Smoke              Disapproved                                                     
No A/C available

                                                                                                                                           Number of
missions requested---7
                                                                                                                                                           
Approved------------4
                                                                                                                                                           
Disapproved---------3

260700                     106-2                    Obsn                 Disapproved                                            
Difficult to see target
260720                     106-3                    Bomb                Disapproved                                             Tps
too close
260757                     165 RCT              Obsn                   Approved                                                 No
enemy activity in area
260821                     106-2                    Obsn                 Approved                                                 No
enemy activity observed
260825                     106-3                    Bomb               Disapproved                                             Tps
too close
260947                     165 RCT              Strafe                Disapproved                                              No
A/C available
261444                     165 RCT              B&S                 Approved                                                 
Missed target endangered
                                                                                                                                                          
own troops
261525                     165 RCT              Strafe                  Approved                                                 
Unsuccessful
261530                     106-2                    Obsn                 Approved                                                 
Heavy emplacements
261545                     106-2                    Bomb                Disapproved                                              No
A/C available
261556                     106 RCT              Obsn                   Approved                                                 
Enemy Arty observed
261706                     106-3                    Bomb                Disapproved                                              No
A/C available

                                                                                                                                            Number of
missions requested-12
                                                                                                                                                            
Approved-----------6
                                                                                                                                                            
Disapproved--------6 

270736                     165 RCT              Bomb                Approved                                                Bad
weather,planes returned
270832                     165 RCT              Bomb                Disapproved                                            No
A/C available
270847                     165 RCT              Bomb                Approved                                                Tps
on move,unable to
                                                                                                                                                          
coordinate mission
271530                     106 RCT              Obsn                 Approved                                                No
enemy activity observed

                                                                                                                                            Number of
missions requested -4
                                                                                                                                                            
Approved ----------3
                                                                                                                                                            
Disapproved --------1

280744                     106-3                    Obsn                  Approved                                               
Observed smoke in area
280745                     106 RCT              Obsn                  Approved                                               
Enemy field pieces
281340                     106 RCT              Obsn                  Approved                                               
Friendly tanks in area
281457                     165-2                    Bomb                Disapproved                                           
Friendly tps too near
281642                     106-2                    Bomb                Disapproved                                            No
A/C available

                                                                                                                                             Number of
missions requested- 5
                                                                                                                                                             
Approved----------3
                                                                                                                                                             
Disapproved--------2

290715                      106-2                   Bomb                 Disapproved                                            
Troops too close
290931                      106-2                   Bomb                 Disapproved                                            
Troops too close
290943                      105 RCT             Obsn                  Approved                                                 
Field guns & mortar fire
291317                      106-2                   Bomb                Disapproved                                             
Friendly troops too close

                                                                                                                                              Number of
missions requested-4 
                                                                                                                                                              
Approved----------1
                                                                                                                                                              
Disapproved-------3

300709                      165-3                    Obsn                  Approved                                               
Enemy activity observed
300800                      165-3                    Obsn                  Approved                                               
Naval gunfire hitting target
301030                      106 RCT              Obsn                    Approved                                                No
enemy activity observed

                                                                                                                                              Number of
missions requested-3
                                                                                                                                                              
Approved----------3
                                                                                                                                                              
Disapproved-------0

0107l5                       165-3                     Obsn                  Approved                                            
Observer saw own tps
010745                      165-3                     Obsn                  Approved                                             No
enemy activity observed
010822                      165-3                     Obsn                  Approved                                            
Strong installations Many
                                                                                                                                                            
foxholes
010912                      106-2                     Bomb                 Disapproved                                         Tps
too close
010915                      106-2                     Bomb                 Disapproved                                         No
A/C available
011035                      105 RCT                Obsn                  Approved                                             No
enemy installations
                                                                                                                                                    
observed
011400                      106-2                     Bomb                 Disapproved                                        
Troops too close
011450                      106 RCT                Obsn                  Approved                                            
Observed tanks No arty fire 

                                                                                                                                              Number of
missions requested-8
                                                                                                                                                              
Approved ---------5
                                                                                                                                                              
Disapproved ------3

020631                       Div-AGL               Obsn                   Approved                                  No enemy
activity observed
                                                                                                                                           Many
foxhole
020640                       Div-AGL               Obsn                   Approved                                  No enemy
activityNo installations
020729                       Div-AGL               Obsn                   Approved                                  Canceled
by Div-AGL
020745                       165-3                    Obsn                   Approved                                  Observed
emplacements &
                                                                                                                                                trenches
020844                       165-3                    Obsn                   Approved                                   Few pill
boxes road clear for tanks
021254                       Div-AGL               Obsn                   Disapproved                               No A/C
available
021410                       165-3                    Obsn                   Approved                                   Very little
activity no artillery seen
021546                       Div-AGL               Obsn                   Approved                                   Very little
activity Arty falling at
                                                                                                                                                  road
junction

                                                                                                                                             Number of
missions requested-8
                                                                                                                                                              
Approved ---------7
                                                                                                                                                              
Disapproved-------1

030700                       165-3                    Obsn                   Approved                                              
Arty positions empty
050744                       106-2                    Strafe                  Disapproved                                          
Tps too close
030835                       106-2                    Bomb                  Disapproved                                          
Tps too close
031320                       165-1                    B&S                   Disapproved                                           
Tps too close

                                                                                                                                            Number of
missions requested--4
                                                                                                                                                            
Approved ----------1
                                                                                                                                                            
Disapproved --------3

340750                       165-1                    Obsn                   Approved                                     Strong
points of defense
                                                                                                                                                   Artillery
positions
041506                       165-1                    B&S                   Disapproved                                  Front
lines too close

                                                                                                                                            Number of
missions requested--2
                                                                                                                                                            
Approved-----------1
                                                                                                                                                            
Disapproved--------1

060745                       105-3                    Obsn                   Approved                             Positive results
061046                       165-2                    Obsn                   Approved                             No tps or guns
foxholes obsvd
061100                       105 RCT              Obsn                     Approved                              Deserted
enemy installations observed
061112                       165-1                    Obsn                   Approved                              No tps Field
guns
061338                       165-2                    Obsn                   Approved                              Positive results
061340                       165-2                    Strafe                  Approved                              Accomplished
good results
061344                       165-2                    Strafe                  Approved                              Accomplished
along beach
061402                       165-2                    Strafe                  Approved                              Accomplished
along beach
061416                       165-2                    Strafe                  Disapproved                          No A/C
available
061424                       165-2                    Obsn                  Approved                               No enemy
activity in area

                                                                                                                                           Number of
missions requested-10
                                                                                                                                                           
Approved------------9
                                                                                                                                                           
Disapproved------- -1

070700                       105 RCT              Obsn                    Approved                             No enemy
activity observer in area of
                                                                                                                                            counter
attack
070935                       165 RCT              Obsn                    Approved                             Several
buildings no activity
071126                       Div-AGL               Obsn                   Approved                             Japs on beach
men in water and up
                                                                                                                                            and down
beach
071424                       Div-AGL               Obsn                   Approved                             Observer saw
2 Japs in area
071655                       Div-AGL               Obsn                   Approved                             No activity or
troop concentration

                                                                                                                                            Number of
missions requested-5
                                                                                                                                                            
Approved ----------5
                                                                                                                                                            
Disapproved--------0

                   Disapproved                Troops too close

080617                       165-1                    Strafe                    Disapproved                Troops too close
                                                                                                                        



080924                        Div-AGL              Obsn                     Approved                    1 Steamroller,
several trucks observed

                                                                                                                                            Number of
missions requested -2
                                                                                                                                                            
Approved-------- --1
                                                                                                                                                            
Disapproved--------1

                                                                           

Number of air missions requested by AGL parties.

                        1. Total number of missions requested by AL parties-----------------115

                              a. Observation----------------------------------------------------58 or 50.4% of
total

               b. Bomb, bomb &
               strafe------------------------------------------57 or 49.5% of
               total

                         2. Number of missions approved by support air command----70 or 60.8% of total

                              a. Observation--------------------------------------------52 or 89.6% of requested
missions

                              b. Bomb, bomb & strafe----------------------------------18 or 31.5% of requested
missions

                          3. Number of approved missions successfully flown------59

                              a. Observation----------------------------------------52 or lOO%

                              b. Bomb, bomb & strafe-------------------------------7 or 38.8%

                             An examination of all bomb, and bomb and strafe missions requested by the AGL
parties, reveals,
                             disapprovals for the following reasons:

                             a. Troops too clove----------------------------15 missions

                             b. No aircraft available-------------------------20 missions

                             c. Miscellaneous---------------------------------4 missions

 

                 It should be borne in mind that the ratio between observation, bomb, and bomb and strafe
missions, in this operation being approximately even, is not a true figure for a normal operation. The
principle reason being that the Air Liaison Officer keeping abreast of aircraft availability would not request
a bomb mission if he knew that planes were not available at the time. There were very few times when an
observation plane was not available for a mission.

                 Further conclusions drawn from the operation concerning use of air support were:

                 a. Very close air support is of uncertain value after artillery has been landed. After initial assault
the major use for                        support aircraft should be for attacks against enemy troop
concentrations, lines of communications, supply                        dumps, and any buildings that might
become future enemy strong points.

                 b. It would be desirable if aircraft when used for support missions could be available in such
quantities that any                        Infantry Commander could rely on delivery of support within twenty
minutes after initial request.

            c. Air Commanders should realize that Ground Commanders can neither foresee their
     needs, nor afford delay              in receiving air support when that need arises. Availability of
     aircraft, to be of a reliable value, should be              continuous and immediate during the
     day-light hours.

            d. Aircraft pilots must be completely impressed with the seriousness of their mission.
     They must never              undertake to bomb or strafe on their own initiative. Such action if
     resulting in casualties to our own               troops causes complete lack of faith in air support
     within the particular unit. Also the loss of morale is                      much more than when
     troops are shelled by their own artillery, as in case of aircraft the individual enlisted              
     man questions, "Canít the________ see what heís doing?".

             e. When Ground Commanders decide to use support aircraft and stop artillery and
     naval gunfire, they should               receive highest consideration and priority. If the mission
     can not be flown, the Air Liaison Officer must               immediately be notified in order that
     artillery and or naval gunfire may be quickly resumed.

             f. Close air support would be much more successful if the Battalion Air Ground Liaison
     Officer was                permitted to talk directly to his supporting planes.

                  Unit recommendations concerning the Air Ground Liaison Section will be found under
Summary and                        Recommendations.

                  Opinions advanced by the Air Ground Liaison Section included:

              a. That air support be considered as a weapon for use prior to landing of Division
     Artillery. 

                   b. After artillery support is established, return the Battalion Air Liaison Parties to Joint Assault
Signal Company                          control, leaving  the Division and Regimental Parties to handle air
support missions.

                   c. An extra frequency is needed for the section in order that a net connecting all parties could
be established. This                          net to set up an  air mission before the actual request over the
support air request net. 

                   d. The present Air Ground Liaison Party in authorized only three enlisted man. Each party
should be increased by                           the assignment of two radio operators to satisfactorily operate in
combat.

            23. Participation of Joint Assault Signal Company Headquarters - The Commanding Officer, two
radio operators, two radio repairmen, one telephone repairman, and a driver were the only headquarters
personnel on the operation. The driver, a radio operator, and a radio repairman worked with the Division
Air Ground Liaison party, and the other radio repairman helped out in the Division Signal Repair Section.
The headquarters was called on from time to time to submit various reports, and to disseminate orders and
information to all Joint Assault Signal Company personnel. Contact was maintained with the Shore Fire
Control and Air Ground Liaison Sections by use of division means of communication. To contact the
Shore Party Communication Section, an SCR 284 radio was established at headquarters working into the
ship-shore-lateral net. The organization headquarters stayed with the Division Command Post throughout
the operation and until departure from Saipan. The headquarters handled as well as possible all
administrative matters (actual administrative personnel had been left in Rear Echelon on Oahu) and made
all personnel changes necessitated by Signal Officer's requests and the filling of vacancies prior to the
move to Tinian.

  Certain occurrences which indicated the necessity of the presence of the entire Headquarters
Platoon were:

                a. It was necessary to compile equipment shortages prior to the Tinian operation and
     also prior to                 departure from Saipan.

                b. Distribution of bulk equipment to teams and parties was necessary prior to the
     Tinian operation.

                c. Many administrative and medical reports were called for by Division Headquarters.

                d. The organization was unable to reform after cessation of  hostilities as mess and
     supply personnel                  andequipment were not available.

                e. Repair of our signal equipment through division channels was slower than if our
     own repair section had                  been present for maintenance.

            24. Casualties - Casualties suffered during the operation did not cause any team or party to
collapse--as personnel replacements were furnished from other parties or sections. Tabulation of
casualties was as follows:

                                                                      KIA                              MIA                                          
WIA & EVAC

Shore Fire Control Section                         2 off, 8 EM                       1 EM                                            
3 off, 5 EM
Air Ground Liaison Section                        2 off, 3 EM
                                                                                    7 EM
Shore Party Communication Section                    2 EM
                                                                                     4 EM

Total casualties: KIA--4 officers, 16 enlisted men; MIA-one enlisted man; WIA & Evacuated 4 officers,
16 enlisted men.

            25. Equipment Expenditure - Roughly 16% of the 295 Joint Assault Signal Companyís signal
equipment was lost, destroyed, or damaged beyond repair during the stay at Saipan. Some of the major
items were: 5 out of 58 SCR 284's; 17 SCR 536ís out of 89 (does not include 22 SCR 536ís turned
over to Division Signal Officer); 2 out of 18 BD 71's; 1 out of 9 PA-5 Ďs (the one missing, seemingly was
stolen); radio equipment in 3 out of 13 - 1/4 ton trucks (1 destroyed completely by enemy action on 7
July, radio equipment in other two ruined by salt water when vehicles were landed in the lagoon).

            26. Summary and Recommendations

                                   SUMMARY

                   a. 42 officers and 385 enlisted men of the 295th Joint Assault Signal Company participated in
                                   the capture of
                 Saipan. 82 of those enlisted men were on temporary duty with the organization from units of the
                                       27th

                                  InfantryDivision.

                   b. The Shore Fire Control, Air Ground Liaison, and Shore Party Communication
     Sections, with a small                     Headquarters comprised the tactical echelon of the 295th
     Joint Assault Signal Company.

                   c. Teams and parties of the organization remained attached to other units
     throughout the Divisionís stay                     on Saipan, as the company did not have supply,
     motor, mess, or administrative personnel on the
                       operation.

                   d. Shore Fire Control Parties, Shore Party Communication Teams, and the
     organization headquarters                     were without sufficient transportation for efficient
     operation on Saipan.

                        e. The SCR 694 is needed to substitute for the SCR 284.

                   f. SCR 300ís or similar radios would be desirable for inter party communication in
     the Air Ground and                    Shore Fire Control Sections

                   g. Air support during the Saipan Operation was not particularly successful for the
     27th Division

                   h. The entire organization Headquarters Platoon was needed on the operation. 

                    i. Shore Fire Control and Air Ground Liaison Parties are not authorized sufficient
     strength by present                     Table of Organization. The most satisfactory means of
     gaining sufficient personnel is by assignment.

                    j. Due to our organization and tactical attachments, difficulties were encountered in
     receiving                      administrative reports from our parties with the various regiments and
     battalions.

                    k. Various occurrences or considerations which indicate that the present
     organization of the Joint Assault                      Signal Company is insufficient, and that it can
     be greatly improved are:

                   (1) The assignment of Naval Officers to the Joint Assault Signal
          Company is unnecessary.

                        (a) The duty of liaison officer to a Battalion Commander on the
          subject of Naval Gunfire                       can be properly discharged by an Army
          Field Artillery Officer.

                        (b) Release of the Navy Officers from the Joint Assault Signal
          Company would increase the                      overall operating efficiency of the
          unit. It is not a question of lack of cooperation, but in                      the Service
          consciousness, appreciable differences in training, different customs, and
                               different regulations. This situation is most difficult during periods
          between operations                      when the unit is in training.

                         (c) Navy Officers do not as a rule have the same attitude towards
          responsibilities for their                       men and equipment that is desired in an
          Army Officer.

                                   (d) Navy Officers are not covered by Army Regulations for such administrative
procedure as: pay,                                            discipline, and keeping of records. Action on the above
items, of course, can be accomplished, but                                            there is often delay which does
not seem necessary if an Army Officer can adequately fill the Navy                                            Officerís
position.

   (e) The present system of attaching a Naval Officer to each Infantry Regiment
about one month prior to                                            an assault should be continued. In the past, these
Naval Liaison Officers have been attached from                                            the Vth Amphibious Corps.
A Naval Office should also be attached to the Division Headquarters.

                                (2) The present Table of Organization indicates assignment of Army Air Force
enlisted men to the                                         company for duty within the Air Ground Liaison Section.
The duties of these men could just as easily                                         be performed by corresponding
specialists from the Infantry or Signal Corps, which action would                                         result in far
greater harmony within an organization.

                            (a) Air Force enlisted personnel have received a different type of
          training than have                          personnel from Army Ground Force units.

                                      (b) The assignment of Army Air Force enlisted men results in difficulties for the
men themselves and                                               for the unit which of necessity must give them ground
force training. Most of the Air Corps                                                enlisted   men originally assigned to
this unit came wishing that they could go back to an Air                                                 Corps unit and
many still desire transfer. 

                            (c) As the duties of the enlisted men within the Air Ground Liaison
          Section can be                          performed by communication personnel of any
          branch, consideration is desired to                          replace these men by Signal
          Corps enlisted men in order to avoid the difficulties                         described
          above.

                                  (3) The distribution of Technician Grades to the Joint Assault Signal Company on
an allotment basis has                                           resulted in many instances where men hold same jobs in
like teams or parties but are not allowed the                                           same rating.

                        (4) The Shore Party Communication Section is the only one that does
          not call for any                       captain vacancies for officers.

                                  (5) The Table of Organization makes no provisions for a Section Commander or
for a Section Sergeant.                                          Of course these people are appointed to these duties
within the company, but it is not the most                                          satisfactory solution for handling the
problem especially during combat when these same men must fill                                          only their
duties as party personnel.

                                   (6) The Table of Organization makes no allowance for the following staff personnel
who are deemed                                            necessary: S-3 (Plans and training), Personnel Officer and
Adjutant, and Motor Officer. Officers                                             are appointed to fill these positions
during training periods, but it was found they are greatly needed                                            during
combat when the original appointees are no longer available due to team or party duties.

                                    (7) Within the organization there it no provision for organic medical personnel.

                                    (8) During training periods or during combat there is no provision for
administrative control of the 13                                            officers and approximately 112 enlisted men
who work with each Infantry Regiment. As                                            comparison, some Field Artillery
Batteries have only 108 enlisted men. Present organization makes                                            all
dissemination and assimilation of information to and from personnel within the unit most difficult.

                                    (9) The present organization is too centralized. There is no division of command
responsibilities and the                                             centralized supply system for an organization of this
size and amount of equipment is unwieldy.

                                   (10) The present organization does not supply sufficient personnel for proper
administrative action within 
                                             the company.

RECOMMENDATIONS

                   Recommend that in order to correct deficiencies within Joint Assault Signal Companies, that
they be reorganized in accordance with attached letter from the Commanding General, 27th Infantry
Division, and proposed Tables of Organization and Equipment pertaining thereto.

Incl: copy letter 27th Division dated 9 Oct 44
and all enclosures thereto.




 



AIR GROUND LIAISON SECTION. 
                      295 JOINT ASSAULT SIGNAL. COMPANY
                                     APO 27

      .                                                                                                                 6 AUGUST 44

 

SUBJECT: AIR GROUND LIAISON REPORT FORAGER OPERATION, SAIPAN

.TO: COMMANDING OFFICER, 295 JOINT ASSAULT SIGNAL COMPANY,
APO 27

 

       1. THIS REPORT COVERS THE ACTIVITIES, COMMENTS, AND
RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE A.G.L. SECTION OF THE 295 JOINT ASSAULT SIGNAL
COMPANY, ATTACHED TO THE 27TH INFANTRY DIVlSION. ALTHOUGH SOME OF THE
RECOMMENDATIONS THAT WILL BE MADE IN THIS REPORTMAY NOT APPEAR TO
DEAL DIRECTLY WITH THE SAIPAN OPERATIONIT IS FELT THAT THE
RECOMMENDATIONS ARE NOTEWORTHY ENOUGH T0 BE MENTIONED AT THIS TIME,

       2. DURING THE PERIOD FROM 16 JULY 44 TO THE TIME WHEN THE ISLAND WAS
SECURED THE AGL PARTIES WERE ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN ATTEMPTING TO GET
AIR SUPPORT TO THEIR UNITS. SOME OF THE OTHER DUTIES PERFORMED BY THE
AGL PARTIES WERE:

               A. KEEPING COMPANY COMMANDER INFORMED AS TO RESULTS OF
AERIAL OBSERVATION MISSIONS WITHIN OUR OWN OR OTHER SECTORS.

               B. MAINTAINING CLOSE LIAISON WITH ARTILLERY AND NAVAL GUNFIRE
UNITS.

               C. MAINTAINING LIAISON WITH FLANK UNITS AND KEEPING CLOSE WATCH
ON ALL AIR STRIKE MISSIONS REQUESTED BY THESE UNITS TO SEE THAT NO
MISSION WAS FLOWN THAT MIGHT ENDANGER OUR TROOPS.

               D. THE FACT THAT ALL AGL PARTIES WERE ON THE SAME FREQUENCY
ENABLED THEM TO KEEP THE COMMANDING OFFICER OF THEIR RESPECTIVE
UNITS INFORMED AT ALL TIMES AS T0 FRONT LINES ALONG THE ENTIRE FRONT. 

       3. THE SAIPAN OPERATION WAS DEFINITELY NOT A GOOD OPERATION FOR
CLOSE IN AlR SUPPORT. A FEW OF THE REASONS ARE LISTED BELOW.

               A. IN THE INITIAL PHASES THE AVAILABILITY OF AIR CRAFT WAS VERY
LIMITED.

               B. AVAILABILITY AND CAPABILITIES OF ARTILLERY WERE EXCELLENT.

               C. TERRAIN WITHIN THE DlVlSION BOUNDARIES WAS VERY POOR FOR AIR
SUPPORT MISSIONS. 

                D. FRONT LINES WERE SO IRREGULAR DUE TO TYPE OF TERRAIN THAT IT
WAS IMPOSSIBLE IN MANY CASES TO EVEN ATTEMPT TO COORDINATE AN AIR
MISSION.

                E. ELAPSED TIME BETWEEN REQUEST AND DELIVERY OF MISSIONS WAS
TOO LONG AND TOO VARIED IN LENGTH TO ALLOW PROPER COORDINATION
AMONG INFANTRY TROOPS, ARTILLERY, NAVAL GUNFIRE, AND A/C I.E. THE 105 RCT
AGL OFFICER REPORTED AN AVERAGE TIME LAG FOR ALL OF HIS MISSIONS AS 61
2/3 MINUTES WHICH CAN BE CONSIDERED THE AVERAGE.

                F. OBSERVATION PLANES WERE SELDOM ABLE TO SPOT THE SOURCE OF
KNOWN GUNFIRE, MORTAR FIRE OR OTHER ACTIVITIES.

                G. RESULTS OF OBSERVATION MISSIONS, WHEN POSITIVE, WERE
REPORTED SO LATE OR POORLY OR BOTH, THAT THE VALUE WAS OFTEN
NEGLIGIBLE.

       4. AlR SUPP0RT RENDERED THlS DIVlSION WAS NOT DEPENDABLE AND LEFT
MUCH TO BE DESIRED BOTH BY THE AGL PARTIES AND THE UNIT COMMANDING
OFFICER. IT IS FELT THAT THIS 0PERATION DID MORE HARM FOR AIR GROUND
SUPPORT THAN lT DID GOOD, SINCE IN MANY CASES, IT WAS THE FIRST TIME THAT
UNIT COMMANDERS HAD A CHANCE TO EXERCISE THE AIR ARM. A BREAK DOWN
OF ALL MISSlON REQUESTS BY THE AIR GROUND LIAISON SECTl0N REVEALS THE
FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

[ There follows a long list of missions requested and disposition of requests. These missions
are not reproduced here. The missions are found in the preceding Report.] 

                      IT MUST BE BORNE IN MIND THAT THE RATIO BETWEEN OBSERVATION
AND BOMB, BOMB AND STRAFE, MISSIONS IN THIS OPERATION BEING
APPROXIMATELY EVEN, IS NOT A TRUE FIGURE FOR A NORMAL OPERATION. THE
PRINCIPLE REASON BEING THAT THE AGL OFFICER KEEPING ABREAST OF THE A/C
AVAILABILITY WOULD NOT REQUEST A BOMB MISSION IF HE KNEW THAT PLANES
WERE NOT AVAILABLE AT THE TIME. THERE WERE VERY FEW TIMES WHEN AN
OBSERVATION PLANE WAS NOT AVAILABLE FOR A MISSION.

       5. THE GENERAL CONCLUSIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS:

                A. CLOSE AlR SUPPORT I S OF UNCERTAIN VALUE AFTER ARTILLERY HAS
BEEN LANDED. A/C CANNOT GUARANTEE THE CONTROL, RELIABILITY OR
ACCURACY AS CAN ARTILLERY OR NAVAL GUNFIRE, 

                B. A/C WHEN USED MUST BE AVAILABLE IN SUCH QUANTITIES THAT ANY
UNIT COMMANDING OFFICER MAY RELY UPON DELIVERY OF MISSIONS WITHIN
TWENTY MINUTES AFTER INITIAL REQUEST. 

               C, AIR COMMANDERS MUST REALIZE THAT GROUND COMMANDERS CAN
NEITHER FORESEE THEIR NEEDS, NOR AFFORD DELAY IN RECEIVING AIR
SUPPORT WHEN THAT NEED ARISES. AVAILABILITY, TO BE OF A RELIABLE VALUE,
MUST BE CONTINUOUS AND IMMEDIATE THROUGHOUT THE DAY LIGHT HOURS.

               D, WHEN THE GROUND COMMANDER DECIDES TO USE AIR SUPPORT AND
IN TURN STOPS ARTILLERY AND NAVAL GUNFIRE HE SHOULD BE GIVEN THE
HIGHEST PRIORITY AND CONSIDERATION. IF FOR ANY REASON THE MISSION
CANNOT DEFINITELY BE FLOWN IMMEDIATELY, THE GROUND COMMANDER MUST
BE NOTIFIED AT ONCE SO THAT THE ARTILLERY MAY COMMENCE FIRING. 

       6. RECOMMENDATIONS OF THIS SECTION ARE:

                A. THAT AIR SUPPORT BE CONSIDERED AS A WEAPON FOR USE PRIOR TO
THE LANDING OF ARTILLERY.

                B. WHEN ARTILLERY HAS LANDED AND IS PROPERLY SET UP, THAT ALL
BLT AGL PARTIES REVERT BACK TO JASCO CONTROL. THIS WOULD LEAVE THE
RCT AND DIVISION AGL PARTIES TO HANDLE THE AIR SUPPORT.

                C. THAT A SECONDARY NET BE SET UP WITH AUXILIARY RADIOS FOR
ADMINISTRATION USE OF BLT, RCT AND DlVISION AGL PARTIES, THIS NET WOULD
BE USED TO SET UP AIR MISSIONS PRIOR TO THEIR ACTUAL REQUEST.

                D. SCR 542 SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM THE 1/4 TON AGL VEHICLE AND
AN SCR 300 BE ISSUED AS A STANDARD ITEM OF EQUIPMENT FOR AGL PARTIES.
PAST OPERATIONS AND THE PRESENT DOCTRINE OF AIR SUPPORT SHOW THAT
AT NO TIME WILL THE AGL PARTIES BE ALLOWED TO CONTACT THE PLANE
DIRECTLY. THIS WAS THE ONLY REASON ORIGINALLY FOR MOUNTlNG THE SCR 542
IN THE VEHICLE. THEREFORE THE SCR 542 IS AN EXPENSIVE, HEAVY, USELESS
PIECE OF EQUIPMENT IN THE AGL VEHICLE. TOO MUCH STRESS CAN NOT BE
PLACED UPON THE NEED OF AN AUXILIARY NET WITHIN THE BLT, RCT AND
DIVISION AGL PARTIES. 

                E. THAT DURING PERIODS BETWEEN COMBAT STRIKES, AGL OFFICERS
AND RADIO OPERATORS BE ATTACHED TO TACTICAL AIR CORPS SQUADRONS OR
GROUPS IN ORDER THAT THEY MAY KEEP ABREAST OF THE LATEST
DEVELOPMENTS IN A/C, ARMAMENT AND OTHER MATTERS PERTAINING TO THE
AIR.

 

                                                               WILLIAM B. AGLER
                                                            CAPTAIN, AIR CORPS
                                                                  COMMANDING


        ***************************************************************************************

       The following is a Record Of Events from 19 October 1944 to 13 March 1945

 

                              RECORD OF EVENTS

19 Oct 44 Unit arrived Bougainville Solomon Islands 1100. Debarked from USS Cape
Johnson 1500. 
      Entrucked for camp area and arrived 1530.

21 Oct 44 Unit reld fr atchmt 27th Inf Div & atchd to XIV Corps 19 Oct 44. Company time spent in
     construction of camp area.

30 Oct 44 Company time mainly spent in construction of camp area.

10 Nov 44 Company fired on range from 8 thru 10 Nov 44.

21 Nov 44 Company time devoted to inspection and repair of organizational property, clothing and equipment.

30 Nov 44 Co alerted for movement.

10 Dec 44 Personnel Embarking.

11 Dec 44 Organization entrucked and departed company area 1030; arrived Beach No. 4 Bougainville,
Solomon Islands 1130;           embarked aboard USS Lamar 1230.

15 Dec 44 Time spent mainly drilling aboard ship. Troops were given actual debarkation instructions.

16 Dec 44 USS Lamar sailed from Bougainville , Solomon Islands 0845.

18 Dec 44 USS Lamar arrived Lae, New Guinea and dropped anchor. Troops took part in debarkation drills.

19 Dec 44 Sailed from, Lae New Guinea 1430.

21 Ded 44 USS Lamar arrived and anchored off Manus, Admiralty Islands 1600.

31 Ded 44 USS Lamar sailed from Manus, Admiralty Islands 0800.

5 Jan 45 Sailed through Mindanao Sea.

9 Jan 45 Arrived Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands 0330. Assault forces landed 0930.

10 Jan 45 Debarked and landed Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands 1030.

20 Jan 45 Company time spent in setting up bivouac area and perimeter defense.

22 Jan 45 Organization relieved from attachment to XIV Corps and attached to ASCON, Sixth Army.

26 Jan 45 Unit reld asgmt XIV Corps and asgd to Sixth Army 20 Nov 44. Unit atchd to XIV Corps 20 Nov 44.

27 Jan 45 Unit performing Military Police duties in Port Sual, San Fabian sectors.

4 Feb 45 Tec 3 Elvino Grua, 36479565, awarded the Purple Heart (Oak-Leaf Cluster) per Section II, General.
  Orders No. 1 Hq 27th Inf Div, dtd 15 Jan 45, for wounds received during capture of Saipan, Marianas
  Islands, 7 July 1944.

4 Officers & 9 EM awarded the Purple Heart per Section III, General Orders No. 99 Hq 27th Inf Div, dtd

30 Nov 44, for wounds received during the capture of Saipan, Marianas Islands.

7 Feb 45 Unit entrucked & departed Binmaley, P.I. 1030. Arrived San Fabian, Luzon, P.I. 1200. Embarked on
LSTs

22 & 757 & anchored in Lingayen Gulf.

8 Feb 45 Unit sailed from Lingayen Gulf, P.I. 1600.

10 Feb 45 Arrived Mindoro, Philippine Islands 1900. Debarked 2000.

12 Feb 45 Unit relieved asgmt Sixth Army & atchmt to ASCOM and asgd to Eight Army and attached to X
Corps

10 Feb 45.

20 Feb 45 Camp area constructed. Organizational property & equipment being checked & repaired.

22 Feb 45 Unit atchd to 24th Inf Div 11 Feb 45.

23 Feb 45 Reld atchmt Tenth Corps & further atchmt 24th Inf Div & atchd to 41st Inf Div 22 Feb 45.

13 Mar 45 Reld atchmt 41st Inf Div & atchd to 24th Inf Div 7 Mar 45.

 

 

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KWAJALEIN

MAJURO

ENIWETOK

LINGAYEN GULF

PALAWAN

ZAMBOANGA

MALABANG PARANG

UNIT CITATION

GENERAL-ORDERS

COMPANY-ROSTER

295 JASCO HOMEPAGE


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